Subsurface Investigation

Beginning with the End in Mind

We are involved in a variety of site assessments with very different levels of complexity – from Superfund Sites, to brownfields redevelopment sites, to residential petroleum clean-up projects. Whether identifying and evaluating the magnitude and extent of potential environmental impacts from a new release of oil and/or hazardous material or defining the extent from existing releases, we approach each subsurface investigation with a fresh perspective. Our site assessment experience allows us to be strategic as we consider the unique combination of regulations, risks, receptors, geology and logistical considerations specific to your site as efficiently as possible – always with an eye on the project milestones that are important to you, including ultimate project closure.

We know that time invested in up front planning allows us to develop appropriate, representative and cost-effective sampling strategies, so that we get the data needed to achieve your project objectives.

Investigation and Characterization Methods

We routinely rely on a wide range of subsurface investigative methods. Our goal is to work with you to select the right approach – one that considers the level of site complexity and your project objectives.  Our approach to investigating sites includes:

  • Standard overburden and bedrock soil borings/groundwater monitoring wells (ranging from direct push to sonic drilling)
  • Standard and advanced survey equipment to map site features
  • Routine (e.g., PID/FID for VOCs) and specialized technologies (e.g., XRF, MIP, LIF) 
  • Sub-slab soil gas sampling and indoor air sampling 
  • Dye testing and camera surveys to trace underground utilities
  • Single and multi-well recovery and ground water withdrawal tests
  • Rock core logging, fracture trace analysis, and borehole geophysics

Conceptual Site Model Development

We know that the key to focused, effective and efficient site investigation is development of a robust conceptual site model (CSM). A strong CSM can help understand the current and potential fate and transport of contamination and determine risk.

Depending on the complexity of the site, our work may include:

  • Two- or three-dimensional modeling of contaminant sources
  • Evaluation of the extent and characteristics of impacts
  • Fingerprinting analysis of on- and off-site sources
  • Prediction of the fate and transport of identified contaminants
  • Identification of potential receptors